The Chukchi — inhabited the interior regions of north-east Siberia from prehistoric times. They are the representatives of a reindeer herder and fishermen culture. The Chukchi were divided into 2 groups – nomadic reindeer herders of the tundra and the settled hunters of sea mammals along the coast – each having their own economy. The first group had reindeer herding as its economic base, the other one sea mammal hunting. Fishing, hunting, and gathering of edible plants were supplemental.
Nomadic and settled Chukchi had different forms of handicrafts. Women processed fur, sewed clothes and boots, and weaved bags from plant fibers. They liked to bead and made patchwork from seal skin. Men were fond of bone and ivory carvings. Reindeers were the main mode of transportation on snow. People also used sledges for different purposes: to carry goods, children (kibitka), and yaranga frames. To walk on ice and snow Chukchi used snow-shoes. If anybody went to the sea he used whale boats and kayaks to travel the sea…
Eskimos – the easternmost people of Russia, who lives on the Chukchi Peninsula.
Name — yuk — “a man”, yugyt or yupik — “real man”. People also used local names: ung’azig’mit or ung’azig’sty – people of Old Chaplino (Ung’azik — an old community on Chaplino Cape), sirenigmit – people of Sireniky, navukagmit — people of Naukan). The Yupik Eskimo language is divided into the Sireniky, Chaplino, and Naukan dialect. Eskimo people are the successors of the ancient culture of the Bering Sea district.
The main economic was based on sea mammal hunting. People ate meat and fat of whales, seals, and other sea mammals. The fat also helped to warm and lit the home. Eskimo made tools and weapons of sea mammal bones. They used their skins to cover the house and kayaks, sew clothes and boots. Whales were killed with harpoons and later with harpoon-guns. The walrus was the main trade of hunting. Different kinds of seals were hunted, too…
The amount of time spend on games and sport competitions of the Eskimo people depends on how busy the adults are. They hunt and work, and when the work is done they enjoy themselves together with their children.
Ball games are among the favorite ones. But to make a ball, an Eskimo must have first to get a seal. How to do this? An experienced hunter knows how to find a seal. In winter seals keep near the surface under the thin crust of ice. Due to its breath a knoll is formed in the ice with a small hole in it. The hunter finds a seal by the knoll. He kills it. In former times hunters were using spears, but later when firearms appeared they began using guns, even though the flesh of a seal killed with a gun is always less delicate…